“The World’s Wonder Oil Pool” attracted investors, drillers, and Hollywood.

 

A 1918 oil discovery on a small farm along the Red River in Texas launched a drilling boom that would bring prosperity — and inspire a Hollywood movie starring Clark Gable, who was a teenager working in nearby Oklahoma oilfields.

On July 29, 1918, a wildcat well drilled by the Fowler Farm Oil Company revealed an oilfield beneath the small cotton-farming town of Burkburnett in North Texas. The subsequent exploration and production frenzy arrived two decades before “Boom Town,” the popular 1940 MGM movie it inspired.

Burkburnett oilfield  panoramic gelatin silver print

A detail from a circa 1919 “General view, Burkburnett oilfield” panoramic gelatin silver print (9 inches x 95 inches) courtesy Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

The Fowler No. 1 well was completed at the northeastern edge of Burkburnett, which had been founded in 1907. The town (once called Nesterville) had been renamed by President Theodore Roosevelt, who had hunted wolf along the Red River with prominent local rancher Burk Burnett.

 Burkburnett oilfield  Boom Town movie with Clark Gable poster

Burkburnett was a sleepy farm town quickly transformed into a small city by the North Texas oil boom, according to the Burkburnett Historical Society.

Although Wichita County had been producing oil since 1912 (thanks to a shallow water well discovery west of town), Fowler’s decision to drill a well on his farm – an attempt called “Fowler’s Folly” by some – brought hundreds of petroleum companies to Wichita County.

burkburnett oil

A collection of 1930s oilfield photography by Farm Security Administration photographers can be found at Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Fifty-six drilling rigs were at work just three weeks after the original oil strike at a depth of 1,734 feet. By January 1919, the Burkburnett population had swelled to 8,000 people – and a line of derricks two-miles long greeted new arrivals.

burkburnett oil

Detail from Library of Congress circa 1919 photo by Almeron Newman Photographic Company: “Burkburnett, Texas, the world’s wonder oil pool, showing eight months phenomenal development, viewed from the northwest side, opposite Fowler farm.”

The Burkburnett oilfield joined earlier discoveries in nearby Electra (1911) and Ranger (1917) that helped make North Texas a worldwide leader in petroleum production (learn more in Pump Jack Capital of Texas).

burkburnett oil

The popular 1940 movie resulted from a Cosmopolitan magazine article, “A Lady Comes to Burkburnett,” which was based on the 1918 oilfield discovery.

By the end of 1918, Burkburnett oil wells were producing 7,500 barrels per day. By June 1919, there were more than 850 producing wells in “the world’s wonder oilfield.”

Nineteen local refineries were soon processing the crude oil. The town’s unpaved streets were lined with newly formed stock offices, brokerage houses, and autos stuck in the mud.

Twenty trains ran daily between Burkburnett and nearby Wichita Falls. Yet another highly productive Wichita County oilfield was then discovered, bringing more prosperity for North Texas. But eventually, the oil boom died out. Affected by the Great Depression, Burkburnett’s population declined during the 1930s. By 1939, the town had a population of less than 3,500. At the same time, the movie “Boom Town” was adapted from a Cosmopolitan magazine article, “A Lady Comes to Burkburnett.”

The 1940 MGM feature starred Spencer Tracy and Clark Gable, Hedy Lamarr and Claudette Colbert. It was nominated for two Academy Awards. At the time of the 1918 Burkburnett discovery well, Clark Gable was a 17-year-old roustabout working with his father William Gable, a service contractor, in an oilfield outside Bigheart, Oklahoma.

In 1922, Gable would collect an inheritance from his grandfather and leave working in the Oklahoma oil patch for good. His father was reported to have said, “I told the stubborn mule if he left me this time, he need never come back.”

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Today, Burkburnett’s population exceeds 10,000, thanks to agriculture, continued production from its historic oilfield – and the 1941 establishment of nearby Sheppard Air Force Base.

Among Burkburnett’s tourist attractions are the Bluebonnet Festival in April – and the Felty Outdoor Oil Museum.

Felty Outdoor Oil Museum at Burkburnett, Texas

F.T. Felty Jr. in 2005 maintained antique “spudders” and other machinery from the North Texas oil boom first collected by his father for the family’s Felty Outdoor Oil Museum of Burkburnett, Texas. Photo by Bruce Wells.

Wichita Falls Skyscraper Shaft

A footnote of the North Texas oil boom is the “World’s Littlest Skyscraper” in Wichita Falls. Just 40 feet tall with 118 square feet per floor, it has survived since 1919.

burkburnett oil

“World’s Littlest Skyscraper.”

The building is a monument of the boom town era – and a Philadelphia con man who convinced oilmen (who were desperate for office space) to approve fraudulent blueprints. J. D. McMahon disappeared after collecting $200,000 and completing his promised “skyscraper.” The fine print his investors overlooked noted a scale in inches – not feet.

“Apparently too busy to keep an eye on construction, investors ultimately found themselves owners of a building that looked more like an elevator shaft than high-rise office space,” notes Carlton Stowers, author of “Legend of the World’s Littlest Skyscraper.”

“The completed building’s outside dimensions were a closet-sized 11 feet by 19 feet. Stairwells that led to the upstairs floors occupied 25 percent of the interior,” Stower says. “Dallas and Houston may have sparkling skyscrapers so tall that they require oxygen in the penthouses, but has Ripley’s Believe It or Not ever paid them attention?”

The brick building has become a Wichita Falls landmark. Today it attracts oil-patch knowledgeable tourists. The city also is headquarters for the Texas Alliance of Energy Producers.

High-resolution panoramic photographs of the historic oilfield can be found at the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division’s Burkburnett, Texas, “the world’s wonder oil pool, showing 8 months phenomenal development.”

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The American Oil & Gas Historical Society preserves U.S. petroleum history. Become an AOGHS supporting member and help maintain this energy education website and expand historical research. For more information, contact bawells@aoghs.org. © 2020 Bruce A. Wells.

Citation Information – Article Title: “Boom Town Burkburnett.” Author: Aoghs.org Editors. Website Name: American Oil & Gas Historical Society. URL: https://aoghs.org/petroleum-pioneers/burkburnett-oil. Last Updated: July 26, 2020. Original Published Date: April 29, 2015.

 

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