From the eccentric wheel to the a counter-balanced “nodding donkey,” inventing new ways to produce petroleum.


In a valley in northwestern Pennsylvania in 1859, Edwin L. Drake drilled America’s first commercial oil well, launching the U.S. petroleum industry. For his oil well pump, Drake borrowed a common kitchen hand-pump to retrieve the important new resource from a depth of 69.5 feet.


Seeking oil for the Seneca Oil Company for refining into a popular lamp fuel, kerosene, Drake’s shallow well created a new exploration and production industry, it wasn’t long before necessity and ingenuity combined to find something more efficient for producing oil from a well.

oil well pump

Invented in 1925 in Lufkin, Texas, the counterbalanced pumping unit brought greater efficiency to the oil patch. Photo by Bruce Wells.

Industry pioneers realized that by improving oil well pump efficiency they could extend the economic life of far deeper wells by years. The new resource will be refined to meet the phenomenal worldwide demand for an inexpensive lamp fuel: kerosene.

The evolution of technology for pumping oil from the ground is reflected in thousands of small, marginally producing oil wells reaching deep into often stubborn reserves.

Although there are almost one-half million wells in the United States that produce less than 15 barrels of oil per day, their total production remains significant.

Stripper Wells

Oil wells will run dry, but advances in “artificial lift systems” technology can put off the inevitable. But even with today’s best technologies, more than half of the oil can remain trapped underground.

Low-volume marginal or “stripper” wells produce no more than 15 barrels a day. The average stripper well produces only about 2.2 barrels per day. These wells comprise 84 percent of U.S. oil wells and produce 18 percent of all domestic oil.

Marginal oil and natural gas wells number about 650,000 of the nation’s 876,000 wells. Once shutdown, they are lost forever. Keeping them in production has long been a challenge for a special breed of oilman, one who combines technical skills with hard work in the field.

pump jack

America’s oilfield technologies advanced in 1875 with this “Improvement In Means For Pumping Wells” invented in Pennsylvania.

“This is an occupation where most of your work is done in all types of weather while working alone, with few thanks, and possibly only a small herd of cattle as company,” notes the Oklahoma Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells.

It was the same in the industry’s earliest oil well pump days.

Central Power Units

Marginal quantities of oil always need help leaving the well. In the early days of the industry, oilmen adapted water-well technology to the problem and used steam-driven walking beam pump systems.

At each well, a steam engine rhythmically raised and lowered one end of a sturdy wooden beam, which pivoted on a Samson post. The walking beam’s other end cranked a long string of sucker-rods up and down to pump oil to the surface.

oil well pump

An oilfield “jack plant” often included a single-cylinder horizontal engine that rotated one eccentric wheel.

The beam walked and the oil surfaced, but a more efficient system was needed. One of the early oil pumping innovations came from an 1875 patent. An “Improvement in Means for Pumping Wells” allowed pumping of multiple wells with a single steam engine. The technology helped boost efficiency in the early oilfields of Venango County, Pennsylvania.

The new pumping method applied a system of linked and balanced walking beams to pump the oil wells. Wooden or iron rods instead of a rope and pulley system made the technology the forerunner of more efficient production methods. Learn more in Eccentric Wheels and Jerk Lines.

Walter Trout’s Revolutionary Prototype

oil well pump

Sketched by Walter Trout in 1925, a prototype of his counterbalanced pump jack was in an oilfield before the end of the year.

As efficient as central power units were, time and technology changed the oilfield again. A new icon of U.S. petroleum production appeared and was soon known by many names: Donkey, Grasshopper, Horse-head, Thirsty Bird, and Pump Jack, among others.

As East Texas timber supplies dwindled and the sawmill business declined, the long-established Lufkin Foundry & Machine Company discovered new opportunities in the oilfield. As more oil discoveries were made, the company – in Lufkin, Texas – not only survived, but prospered.

Walter Trout was working in Texas for Lufkin Foundry & Machine in 1925 when he sketched out his idea for the now familiar counterbalanced oil well pump jack. Before the end of the year, the prototype was installed and working near Hull, Texas, in a Humble Oil Company oilfield.

oil well pumps

The founding of the Lufkin Foundry and Machine Company in 1902 would lead to creation of an oilfield icon known by many names — nodding donkey, grasshopper, horse-head, thirsty bird, etc. Photo by Bruce Wells.

“The well was perfectly balanced, but even with this result, it was such a funny looking, odd thing that it was subject to ridicule and criticism, and it took a long time, nearly a year, before we could convince many the idea was a good one,” Trout explained.

oil well pump

Key to pumping the oil (and often set to run on a timer), an engine turns gears that move a counter weight connected to the walking beam, which moves the sucker-rod up and down to up draw oil.

Modern stripper wells still look much like Walter Trout’s original, but they enjoy the reliability and efficiency that 85 more years of evolving technology have produced.

Lufkin Industries produces a variety of oil well pump units designed to meet worldwide needs. More than 200,000 units have been sold.

Advancements in Efficiency

As with nearly every segment of the petroleum industry, artificial lift systems – including the venerable pump jack – are also benefiting from inclusion of “smart” technology, notes a representative from another leading oilfield supply company.

“The computer-based technology is used to monitor and analyze pump systems in realtime from miles away, quickly and with minimal human interference,” explained Paul Nelson of Houston-based Weatherford International Ltd. in a 2001 article for Oil and Gas Online.

“On pump jacks that means constant monitoring of well production and the lift unit in order to optimize energy usage while maximizing the amount of oil recovered from reluctant zones,” Nelson added.

Smart well technology is of particular importance to the United States, where a very large portion oil is produced from thousands of small stripper wells producing less than 10 barrels a day, Nelson noted.

Many stripper wells have reached such a depleted pressure state that once they are shut in they can never be economically restarted. The majority of them must be kept alive by oil well pump jacks.

The lighting of the “Rudolph the Red Nosed Pumping Unit” in Lufkin, Texas, has included more than 1,000 lights decorating a 38-foot-tall pump jack. Photo courtesy the Lufkin Daily News.

“By improving pump efficiencies without adding significantly to operating costs, smart well technology stands to extend by years the economic life of many of these wells and, by extension, add millions of barrels of oil to U.S. reserves,” he concluded.


Edwin L. Drake (1819-1880) became the “father of the petroleum industry” when he drilled what most consider America’s first commercial oil well on August 27, 1859, near Titusville, Pennsylvania. He used a steam engine and cable-tool rig.

Drake overcame many financial and technical obstacles to make his historic discovery. He also pioneered new drilling technologies, including using iron casing to isolate his well bore from nearby Oil Creek.

Learn more about drilling technology – including how “fishtail” bits became obsolete in 1909 when Howard Hughes Sr. introduced the twin-cone roller bit: Making Hole – Drilling Technology.

For more articles about the evolution of modern petroleum production technologies, read Shooters – A ‘Fracking‘ History and Downhole Bazooka. Another innovative advance came in 1933 with the use of slant drilling to solve a major oilfield crisis – see Technology and the “Conroe Crater.


The American Oil & Gas Historical Society preserves U.S. petroleum history. Become an AOGHS supporting member and help maintain this energy education website and expand historical research. For more information, contact © 2020 Bruce A. Wells.

Citation Information – Article Title: “All Pumped Up – Oilfield Technology.” Author: Editors. Website Name: American Oil & Gas Historical Society. URL: Last Updated: April 20, 2020. Original Published Date: September 1, 2006.

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